Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)
- AntioxidantsAntioxidants: It has been demonstrated that smokers have lower-than-normal circulating levels of some antioxidants (75).
- CarotenoidsCarotenoids: Low levels of carotenoids (e.g., beta-carotene, lycopene) were observed in the blood plasma of human smokers (210).
- Fatty acidsFatty acids: According to a review, tobacco influences tissue essential fatty acid levels (91).
- Vitamin AVitamin A: Tobacco use causes a deficiency in vitamin A; supplementation of vitamin A appeared to be effective in reducing cancer incidence in human tobacco users (211; 212).
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